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Filosofie biologie je součást filosofie vědy, která se zabývá gnozeologickými, metafyzickými a etickými problémy v biologii a medicíně. Přestože filosofové vědy a filosofové obecně se často zabývali životem (včetně např. Aristotela, Descarta a Kanta), o filosofii biologie se mluví většinou až od 60. a 70. let 20. století. Filosofové vědy se tehdy začali biologií zabývat po moderní syntéze a vývoji moderní genetiky. Někteří filosofové se také domnívají, že klíčový zde byl vývoj neurologie a redukování vědomí na materiální termíny.

PřehledEditovat

Filosofii biologie lze vidět jako pokračovatele empirické tradice a naturalismu. Mnoho současných filosofů biologie se vymezuje ústřední otázce rozdílu mezi živým a neživým. Mezi hlavní otázky, kterými se dnes filosofie biologie zabývá patří:

O filozofii biologie se také mluví jako o bioetice: Filozofické disciplíně, která by měla pomoci rozklíčovat základní lidské hodnoty a vyřešit etické otázky kolem nových technologií. Mezi takové otázky lze zařadit:

  • „Co je to život?“[1]
  • „Čím je člověk jedinečný?“;
  • „Jaké jsou evoluční základy morálního myšlení?“;
  • „Jaké biologické faktory ovlivňují naše estetické soudy?“;
  • „Jak je evoluce slučitelná s křesťanstvím a dalšími náboženskými systémy?“

Redukcionismus, holismus, a vitalismusEditovat

Velkou část diskuze filosofie biologie tvoří analýza různých současných i historických pohledů, které biologové zastávají a jaké kulturní či sociální sounáležitosti tyto pohledy doprovázely. Mezi ně patří:

  • Vědecký redukcionismus je názor, že veškeré biologické procesy je možné zredukovat na mikroskopické chemické reakce a fyzické interakce
  • Holismus znamená v biologii pohled na makroskopická působení živých organismů. Například evoluce je dobrým příkladem pozorování děje s velkým měřítkem tím, že aplikujeme statistické výpočty na pravděpodobnosti přežití jednotlivce.[2]
  • Vitalismus je pohled biology od 19. století povětšinou odmítaný, že existuje jakási životní energie (nazývaná vis-viva)

ReferenceEditovat

V tomto článku byl použit překlad textu z článku Philosophy of biology na anglické Wikipedii.

  1. Maturana, H. R., & Varela, F. J. (1980).
  2. TALBOTT, Stephen L. Getting Over the Code Delusion [online]. The New Atlantis. Dostupné online. (anglicky) 

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Externí odkazyEditovat