Genetický kód: Porovnání verzí

Přidáno 42 bajtů ,  před 7 lety
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<sup>7</sup>U rodu ''[[Candida (rod)|Candida]]'' byla objevena odchylka kódu, při které kodon CUG kóduje [[serin]] (Ser/S)<ref name="CUGserin Candida">{{Citace periodika
| příjmení = Butler
| jméno = Geraldine
<sup>6</sup>U rodu ''[[Mycoplasma]]'' byla objevena odchylka kódu, při které kodon UGA translaci neukončuje a namísto toho kóduje [[tryptofan]] (Trp/W)
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<sup>7</sup>U rodu ''[[Candida (rod)|Candida]]'' byla objevena odchylka kódu, při které kodon CUG kóduje [[serin]] (Ser/S)<ref name="CUGserin Candida"/>
Mnoho výjimek, v tabulce nevyznačených, se vyskytuje v genetickém kódu [[mitochondrie|mitochondrií]] a [[plastid]]ů.<ref name="NCBI"/>
==Origin of the genetic code==
 
Numerous variations of the standard genetic code are found in [[mitochondrion|mitochondria]], which are energy-producing [[organelles]]. [[Ciliate]] [[protozoa]] also have some variation in the genetic code: UAG and often UAA code for Glutamine (a variant also found in some [[green alga]]e), or UGA codes for Cysteine. Another variant is found in some species of the [[yeast]] [[Candida (rod)|candida]], where CUG codes for Serine. In some species of [[bacterium|bacteria]] and [[archaea]], a few non-standard amino acids are substituted for standard stop codons; UGA can code for [[selenocysteine]] and UAG can code for [[pyrrolysine]]. There may be other non-standard interpretations that are not known.
 
Despite these variations, the genetic codes used by all known forms of life on Earth are very similar. Since there are many possible genetic codes that are thought to have similar utility to the one used by Earth life, the theory of [[evolution]] suggests that the genetic code was established very early in the history of life.