Herbert von Karajan: Porovnání verzí

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== Původ ==
Karajanové byli rodem řeckého<ref name=" Cramer, Alfred W. 2009 758 ">{{cite book |author= Cramer, Alfred W. |title= Musicians and Composers of the 20th Century-Volume 3 |publisher= Salem Press |year= 2009 |page=758 |isbn= 9781587655159 |quote= The Life Herbert Ritter von Karajan (fahn KAHR-eh-yahn) was born to Ernst and Martha von Karajan, an upper-class family of Greek-Macedonian origin.}}</ref><ref name=" Paul Robinson, Bruce Surtees 1976 6 ">{{cite book |author=Paul Robinson, Bruce Surtees |title=Karajan |publisher= Macdonald and Janes|year=1976 |page=6 |quote=Herbert von Karajan was born in Salzburg April 5, 1908. Though an Austrian by birth, the Karajan family was actually Greek, the original surname being Karajanis or "Black John". The family had migrated from Greece to Chemnitz, Germany, and from there to Austria about four generations before Herbert.}}</ref><ref name=" Ian Brunskill 2010 ">{{cite book |author= Ian Brunskill |title= The Times Great Lives: A Century In Obituaries |publisher= HarperCollins UK |year= 2010 |page= <!--http://books.google.at/books?id=7jtGNnBNPKEC&pg=PT678&dq=#v=onepage&q=Karajan%20family%20were%20Macedonian%20Greeks%20&f=false--> |isbn= 9780007363735 |quote=Born in Salzburg on April 5, 1908, Karajan was the younger son of a distinguished surgeon and his Slovenian wife. Originally called Karajannis, the Karajan family were Macedonian Greeks who had moved first to Saxony and later to Vienna where they held important academic, medical, and administrative posts. |url= http://books.google.at/books?id=7jtGNnBNPKEC&pg=PT678&dq=#v=onepage&q=Karajan%20family%20were%20Macedonian%20Greeks%20&f=false}}</ref><ref name=" Metropolitan Opera Guild 1961 397 ">{{cite book |author= Metropolitan Opera Guild |title= Opera news, Band 26 |publisher= Metropolitan Opera Guild |year= 1961 |page=397 |oclc= 1590631 |quote= The thirty-five-year career began when Karajan was nineteen. He had been born on April 5, 1908, into a family of Greek ancestry that enjoyed considerable prestige in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.}}</ref><ref name=" Kuhn, Laura Diane 1999 850 ">{{cite book |author= Kuhn, Laura Diane |title= Baker's Student Encyclopedia of Music: H-Q |publisher= Schirmer Books |year= 1999 |page=850 |isbn= 9780028654164 |quote= Karajan, Herbert von [...] cultured family of Greek-Macedonian extraction whose original name was Karajannis. His father was a medical officer.}}</ref><ref name=" Kater, Michael H. 1997 56 ">{{cite book |author= Kater, Michael H. |title=The twisted muse: musicians and their music in the Third Reich |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1997 |page=56 |isbn=9780195096200 |quote= Karajan was born in 1908 in Austrian Salzburg, the son of a well-to-do physician of partially Greek-Macedonian ancestry whose forebears had been ennobled while in the service of the Saxon kings. |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=XzQp-tZm9oMC&pg=PA56&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=p7qzStSZDJjGM_jllKAD#v=onepage&q=&f=false}}</ref> nebo [[Arumuni|arumunského]]<ref>Binder, David. "Vlachs, A Peaceful Balkan People" in ''Mediterranean Quarterly''</ref> původu. Jeho pra-pra-dědečekprapradědeček Georg Karajan (Georgios Karajánnis, {{Vjazyce|el}} Γεώργιος Καραγιάννης) se narodil v [[Kozani]], provincii Západní Makedonie, v [[Řecko|Řecku]] (osmanská provincie Rumélie) v roce 1767 přesídlil [[Vídeň|Vídně]] a následně do [[Saská Kamenice|Saské Kamenice]] (Chemnitzu) v [[Saské kurfiřtství|Saském kurfiřtství]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEFD71E3BF931A15755C0A960948260 |title=General Music Director of Europe |work=The New York Times |author=John Rockwell |date=22 June 1986 |accessdate=15 April 2007}}</ref> On a jeho bratr se podíleli na založení saského textilního průmyslu, a oba byli za své služby [[Fridrich August I. Saský|Fridrichem Augustem I.]] dne 1. června 1792 povýšeni do šlechtického stavu. Tak se dostala předpona ''von'' do příjmení. Z příjmení Karajánnis se stal Karajan.<ref name="KarajanFamily">{{cite web|url= http://www.karajan.co.uk/family.html |title= Herbert von Karajan-Karajan Family |publisher=Karajan Family |accessdate =14 March 2012}}</ref>
Ačkoli tradiční životopisy připisují [[Srbsko|srbský]] nebo jednoduše slovanský původ jeho matky,<ref name="Lapajne2008">{{cite web|url=http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/2500 |title=The Shared Slovenian Ancestors of Herbert von Karajan and Hugo Wolf |date=4 April 2008 |accessdate=5 May 2008 |author=Branka Lapajne}}</ref> tak Karajanovi předkové z matčiny strany, přes jeho dědečka, který se narodil ve vesnici Mojstrana v [[Kraňské vévodství|Kraňsku]] (dnešním [[Slovinsko|Slovinsku)]], byli [[Slovinci]].<ref name="KarajanFamily"/><ref name="Lapajne2008"/><ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.si/books?id=6Q0wAQAAIAAJ |title=Maestro: encounters with conductors of today |first=Helena |last=Matheopoulos |page=244 |year=1983 |publisher=Harper & Row |isbn=978-0-06-015103-4}}</ref> Přes tuto linii byl Karajan příbuzný s rakouským skladatelem slovinského původu [[Hugo Wolf]]em.<ref>{{cite journal |url=http://www.slomd.si/bilten/Bilten_24.pdf |pages=31–34 |title=Hugo Wolf in Herbert von Karajan: potomca družine Lavtižar |language=Slovene |trans_title=Hugo Wolf and Herbert von Karajan: The Descendants of the Lavtižar Family |first=Branka |last=Lapajne |journal=Bilten [Bulletin] |volume=24 |year=2006 |publisher=Slovensko muzikološko društvo [Slovenian Musicological Society] |accessdate=27-03-2014 }} {{Wayback|url=http://www.slomd.si/bilten/Bilten_24.pdf |date=20131206120353 }}</ref> Je pravděpodobné, že Karajan trochu hovořil [[Slovinština|slovinsky]].<ref name="KarajanFamily"/><ref name="Lapajne2008"/>