Wikipedista:Z.Johny/Pískoviště: Porovnání verzí

Přidáno 14 080 bajtů ,  před 2 lety
preklad
(Nová stránka: Citrus aurantifolia)
 
(preklad)
{{ Taxobox
[[Citrus aurantifolia]]
| jméno = Kyselý lajm
| obrázek = ripekeylime.jpg
| popis obrázku = Zralý plod
| šířka obrázku = 235px
| doména = [[eukaryota]] (''Eucaryota'')
| říše = [[rostliny]] (''Plantae'')
| oddělení = [[krytosemenné]] (''Magnoliophyta'')
| třída = [[vyšší dvouděložné]] (''Rosopsida'')
| řád = [[mýdelníkotvaré]] (''Sapindales'')
| čeleď = [[routovité]] (''Rutaceae'')
| rod = [[citrus]] (''Citrus'')
| binomické jméno = {{hybrid}} aurantifolia
| rod popsal = (Christm.) [[Walter Tennyson Swingle|Swingle]]
}}
 
'''Kyselý lajm''' (''Citrus'' × ''aurantifolia'') je hybridní [[citrus]] (''[[Citrus micrantha|C. micrantha]]'' x ''[[Citrus medica|C. medica]]'') s plodem kulového tvaru o průměru 2,5 - 5 cm. Obvykle je sklízen zelený, nezralý. V zralosti má barvu žlutou.
 
Plod je menší, obsahuje více semen, má vyšší kyselost a aromatičnost a tenčí [[slupka|slupku]] než [[tahitský lajm]] (''Citrus × latifolia''). Kyselý lajm je ceněn pro svoji specifickou chuť oproti ostatním [[limeta]] limetám.
 
== Popis ==
''C. aurantifolia'' je [[trn|trnitý]] keř nebo nízký strom dorůstající do výšky 5m. Existují také trpasličí odrůdy, které mohou být pěstovány v chladnějších podmínkách a zimovány v interiérech. Kmen je obvykle křivý, bohatě se větví a to již v malé výšce. Listy jsou vejčité, 2.5–9 cm dlouhé, připomínající listy [[Citrus aurantium|pomerančovníku hořkého]]. Odtut také pochází latinský název ''aurantifolia'' - pomarančovníkolistý. Květ má v průměru asi 2,5 cm, je nažloutlý se světle fialovými okraji okvětních plátků. Květy a plody se obejvují během celého roku, ale nejčastěji během května září<ref>{{cite book|author1=P. Golob|author2=Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations |title=The use of spices and medicinals as bioactive protectants for grains |chapter=Alphabetical List of Plant Families with Insecticidal and Fungicidal Properties |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=99B3ktmecWAC&pg=PA13 |accessdate=19 June 2011 |year=1999 |publisher=Food & Agriculture Org. |isbn=978-92-5-104294-6 |pages=13–}} [https://web.archive.org/web/20021218030752/http://www.fao.org/docrep/x2230e/x2230e12.htm Webarchive mirror]</ref><ref name="purdue1">[http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/mexican_lime.html ''Citrus aurantiifolia'' Swingle]. Hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved on 2011-06-19.</ref>
 
Podobně jako některé další citrusy mohou rostlinné šťávy kyselého lajmu při kontaktu s pokožkou způsobit [[dermatitida|fytodermatitidu]]<ref name="Weber et al. 1999">{{cite journal |title=Phytophotodermatitis: The other 'lime' disease |last1=Weber |first1=Ian C |last2=Davis |first2=Charles P |last3=Greeson |first3=David M |year=1999 |journal=The Journal of Emergency Medicine|volume=17 |issue=2 |pages=235–237 |issn=0736-4679 |pmid=10195477 |doi=10.1016/s0736-4679(98)00159-0}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.patientcareonline.com/articles/phytophotodermatitis-fingers-young-child |title=Phytophotodermatitis on Fingers of a Young Child |date=2003-04-01 |website=Patient Care Online |language=en |access-date=2018-10-23}}</ref>, kdy látky obsažené v této šťávě způsobí extrémní citlivost pokožky na [[ultrafialové záření]].
 
== Původ ==
Tento kultivar je [[hybrid]], ''[[Citrus micrantha]]'' × ''[[Citron|Citrus medica]]''.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12863-014-0152-1 | title=Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrus species: analysis of chromosome 2 | journal=BMC Genetics | volume=15 | page=152 | year=2014 | last1=Curk | first1=Franck | last2=Ancillo | first2=Gema Ancillo | last3=Garcia-Lor | first3=Andres | last4=Luro | first4=François | last5=Perrier | first5=Xavier | last6=Jacquemoud-Collet | first6=Jean-Pierre | last7=Navarro | first7=Luis | last8=Ollitrault | first8=Patrick }}</ref><ref name=GRIN>{{GRIN | ''Citrus'' × ''aurantiifolia'' | 10683 | accessdate = 11 December 2017}}</ref><ref name=Nicolosi>{{cite journal | last1 = Nicolosi | first1 = E. | last2 = Deng | first2 = Z.N. | last3 = Gentile | first3 = A. | last4 = La Malfa | first4 = S. | last5 = Continella | first5 = G. | last6 = Tribulato | first6 = E. | year = 2000 | title = Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers | url = | journal = Theoretical and Applied Genetics | volume = 100 | issue = 8| pages = 1155–1166 | doi = 10.1007/s001220051419 }}</ref>
 
''C. aurantiifolia'' is původné v [[Jihovýchodní Asie| jihovýchodní Asii]]. Odtud by přinesen na [[Střední východ]] a do [[severní Afrika|severní Afriky]], poté na [[Sicilie|Sicilii]] a do [[Andalusie]] and via Spanish explorers to the [[West Indies]], including the [[Florida Keys]]. [[Henry Perrine]] is credited with introducing the Key lime to Florida.<ref name=tequesta>{{cite news |last= Robinson |first= T. Ralph |date= August 1942 |title= Henry Perrine: Pioneer horticulturist of Florida |work= Tequesta |volume= 1 |issue= 2 |pp=16–24 |publisher= Historical Association of Southern Florida as a Bulletin of the [[University of Miami]] |url= http://digitalcollections.fiu.edu/tequesta/files/1942/42_1_03.pdf |via= [[Florida International University]] |accessdate= 28 November 2018}}</ref> From the Caribbean, lime cultivation spread to tropical and subtropical North America, including [[Mexico]], [[Florida]], and later [[California]].
 
Since the [[North American Free Trade Agreement]] came into effect, many Key limes on the US market are grown in Mexico, [[Central America]] and [[South America]]. They are also grown in [[Texas]], [[Florida]], and [[California]].
 
The Key lime has given rise to several other lime varieties. The best known, the [[Polyploid|triploid]] progeny of a Key lime-lemon cross, is the [[Persian lime]] (''Citrus × latifolia''), the most widely-produced lime, globally. Others are, like their parent, classed within ''C. aurantiifolia''. [[Backcross]]ing with [[citron]] has produced a distinct group of triploid limes that are also of commercial value to a limited degree, the seedy Tanepeo, Coppenrath, Ambilobe and Mohtasseb lime varieties as well as the Madagascar lemon. Hybridization with a [[mandarin orange|mandarin]]-[[pomelo]] cross similar to the oranges has produced the Kirk lime. The New Caledonia and Kaghzi limes appear to have resulted from an [[F1 hybrid|F2]] Key lime self-pollination, while a spontaneous genomic duplication gave us the [[Polyploid|tetraploid]] Giant Key lime.<ref name="limes and lemons">{{cite journal | title=Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers | last1=Curk | first1=Franck | last2=Ollitrault | first2= Frédérique | last3=Garcia-Lor | first3= Andres | last4=Luro | first4=François | last5=Navarro | first5=Luis | last6=Ollitrault | first6=Patrick | journal=Annals of Botany | volume=11 | pages=565–583 | year=2016 | doi=10.1093/aob/mcw005 | pmc=4817432 }}</ref><ref>{{citation|last1=Ali | first1=Muhammad Amjad | last2=Nawaz | first2=Muhammad Azher | chapter=Advances in Lime Breeding and Genetics | title=The lime: botany, production and uses| editor-last1=Khan |editor-first1=M. Mumtaz | editor-last2=Al-Yahyai| editor-first2=Rashid | editor-last3=Al-Said |editor-first3=Fahad | year=2017 | publisher=CAB International | pages=37–53}}</ref> The potential to produce a wider variety of lime hybrids from the Key lime due to its tendency to form [[ploidy|diploid]] gametes may reduce the disease risk presented by the limited diversity of the current commercial limes.<ref>{{cite journal| last1=Rouiss | first1=H | last2=Bakry | first2=F | last3=Froelicher | first3=Y | last4=Navarro | first4=L | last5=Aleza | first5=P | last6=Ollitrault | first6=P| title=Origin of ''C. latifolia'' and ''C. aurantiifolia'' triploid limes: the preferential disomic inheritance of doubled-diploid ‘Mexican’ lime is consistent with an interploid hybridization hypothesis | journal=Annals of Botany | volume=121 | pages=571–585 | year=2018 | doi=10.1093/aob/mcx179}}</ref>
 
== Agronomy ==
 
=== Cultivation and propagation ===
[[File:keylime-flower.jpg|thumb|right|Flowers of the Key lime plant]]
There are various approaches to the cultivation of Key limes. This variety of [[citrus]] can be propagated from seed and will grow true to the parent. The seeds must be kept moist until they can be planted, as they will not germinate if allowed to dry out. {{Citation needed|date=May 2011}} If the plants are propagated from seed, the seeds should be stored at least 5–6 months before planting.<ref name="CRC handbook">Duke J.A., duCellier J.L. (1993): ''CRC handbook of alternative cash crops'' (page 139-145)</ref> Alternatively, vegetative propagation from cuttings or by [[layering|air layering]] may permit fruit production within one year, and from genetically more predictable lines of plants. Or digging around a mature tree to sever roots will encourage new sprouts that can be transplanted to another location. {{Citation needed|date=May 2011}} Clones are often bud grafted<ref>{{cite web|url=http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/propagation/budding/budding.html|title=T or Shield Budding|work=tamu.edu}}</ref> into rough [[lemon]] or [[sour orange]] to obtain strong root stocks (see also [[fruit tree propagation]]).
 
It is often advisable to graft the plants onto rootstocks with low susceptibility to [[gummosis]], because seedlings generally are highly vulnerable to the disease. Useful rootstocks include wild grapefruit, [[cleopatra mandarin]] and [[Persian lime|tahiti limes]].<ref name="CRC handbook" /> [[Citrus macrophylla|''C. macrophylla'']] is also sometimes used as a rootstock in Florida to add vigor.
 
Climatic conditions and fruit maturation are crucial in cultivation of the lime tree. Under consistently warm conditions potted trees can be planted at any season, whereas in cooler temperate regions it is best to wait for the late winter or early spring.
The Key lime tree does best in sunny sites, well-drained soils,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/mexican_lime.html|title=Mexican Lime|year= 1987|pages= 168–172|work= Fruits of warm climates|first=Julia F.|last=Morton|publisher=Purdue}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/citrus/limes.htm|title=Home Fruit Production|work=tamu.edu}}</ref> good air circulation, and protection from cold wind. Because its root system is shallow, the Key lime is planted in trenches or into prepared and broken rocky soil to give the roots a better anchorage and improve the trees' wind resistance. Pruning and topping should be planned to maximise the circulation of air and provide plenty of sunlight. This keeps the crown healthily dry, improves accessibility for harvesting, and discourages the organisms that cause gummosis.<ref name="CRC handbook" />
 
=== Harvesting ===
[[File:KeyLime 2010 07 25 0001.jpg|thumb|White key lime flower in different stages.]] <!---probably mislabled, since real kew lime flowers are purple tinted from outside, this is probably palestinian sweet lime, or limetta, see citrus taxonomy and moroccan citron--->
 
The method of cultivation greatly affects the size and quality of the harvest. Trees cultivated from seedlings take 4–8 years before producing a harvest. They attain their maximal yield at about 10 years of age. Trees produced from cuttings and air layering bear fruit much sooner, sometimes producing fruit (though not a serious harvest) a year after planting. It takes approximately 9 months from the blossom to the fruit.
When the fruit have grown to harvesting size and begin to turn yellow they are picked and not clipped. To achieve produce of the highest market value, it is important not to pick the fruit too early in the morning; the turgor is high then, and handling turgid fruit releases the peel oils and may cause spoilage.<ref name="CRC handbook" />
 
=== Postharvest process ===
[[File:Starr 080610-8303 Citrus aurantiifolia.jpg|thumb|3 key lime fruits with persistent [[Gynoecium#Carpels|styles]].]]
[[Shelf life]] of Key limes is an important consideration in marketing. The lime still ripens for a considerable time after harvesting, and it is usually stored between {{convert|12.5|and(-)|15.5|°C|0|abbr=on}} at a [[relative humidity]] of 75–85%. Special procedures are employed to control the shelf life – for example, applications of [[Plant hormone|growth regulators]], [[Fruit waxing|fruit wax]], [[fungicide]]s, precise cooling, calcium compounds, [[silver nitrate]], and special packing material. The preferred storage conditions are temperatures of {{convert|9|-|10|°C|abbr=on}} and a humidity over 85%, but even in ideal conditions post-harvesting losses are high.
 
In India most Key lime producers are small scale farmers without access to such post-harvesting facilities, but makeshift expedients can be of value. One successful procedure is a coating of [[coconut oil]] that improves shelf life, thereby achieving a constant market supply of Key limes.<ref name="Bisen et al., 2012">Bisen A., Pandey S.K., Patel N.: ''Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantiifolia Swingle).'' Journal of Food Science Technology (2012) 49(6).753-759. (page 139–145)</ref>
 
Key limes are made into [[black lime]] by boiling them in [[brine]] and drying them. Black lime is a condiment commonly used in the Middle East.
 
=== Yield ===
The yield varies depending on the age of the trees. Five- to seven-year-old orchards may yield about 6 t/ha (2.7 tons/acre), with harvests increasing progressively until they stabilise at about 12–18 t/ha (5.4–8 tons/acre). Seedling trees take longer to attain their maximal harvest, but eventually out-yield grafted trees.<ref name="CRC handbook" />
 
== References ==
{{Překlad|jazyk=en |článek=Key_lime |revize=875026572 }}
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
== External links ==
{{Wikispecies|taxon=Citrus aurantiifolia}}